The untapped potential of urine shed bladder cancer exosomes: biomarkers, signaling, and therapeutics
Exosomes are small, extracellular vesicles ranging in size from 30-100 nm. Their contents originate from the cytoplasm of their host cell, including nucleic acids, intracellular and membrane-bound protein. Cancer cells have been found to produce exosomes at a significantly higher rate than normal cells, and function in cell-to-cell signaling, with surface protein interaction with recipient cells, as well as deposition of host cell RNA into the recipient cell. Bladder cancer exosomes have demonstrated the propensity to augment the aggressiveness of tumors by increasing tumor cell migration and angiogenesis, while systemically circulating exosomes in other malignancies have also been shown to establish a favorable niche for metastatic disease. With respect to bladder cancer, these exosomes are additionally shed into the urine and represent a potential source of urinary biomarkers to be utilized for a non-invasive diagnosis. Further, while exosomes promote aggressiveness of bladder tumors, there is also potential for therapeutic endeavors on the horizon, with loading of silencing RNA and chemotherapeutics being avenues under investigation. Here we review the current literature on exosomes in bladder cancer as biomarkers, their role in cell-to-cell signaling, and as potential delivery agents for modulatory agents and chemotherapeutics.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License..