Antibiotic prophylaxis is not associated with reduced urinary tract infection-related complications after cystectomy and ileal conduit
Objectives: Majority of complications after ileal conduit urinary diversion with cystectomy are related to urinary tract infections (UTIs). Controversy exists regarding use of prophylactic antibiotics after surgery. We determined if prophylactic antibiotic use during ureteral stent placement after ileal conduit urinary diversion decreased incidence of UTI-related complications.
Methods: We retrospectively identified 75 consecutive patients who underwent ileal conduit urinary diversion with cystectomy at our institution from 2010 to 2016. Patients were stratified based on presence or absence of a UTI-related complication in the 90-day postoperative period. Means were compared with independent t-test and proportions with chi-square analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine independent predictors of UTI-related complications.
Results: Forty-five patients (60%) were prescribed prophylactic antibiotics after surgery. Mean duration of antibiotic use was 15 d, and mean duration of ureteral stenting was 25 d. Most common antibiotics used included fluoroquinolones (n = 23, 30.7%) followed by sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (n = 14, 18.7%). Rate of 90-day UTI-related complications was 36% (n = 27), and 90-day UTI-related readmission rate was 14.7% (n = 11). On bivariate and multivariate analysis, prophylactic antibiotic use was not associated with reduced 90-day UTI-related complications (P > 0.05). Patients prescribed prophylactic antibiotics had increased incidence of Clostridium difficile infections in the 90-day postoperative period compared to controls (20% vs. 3.3%; P = 0.038).
Conclusions: Prophylactic antibiotic use after ileal conduit urinary diversion with cystectomy was not associated with reduced UTI-related complications, and rate of Clostridium difficile infections was higher in this patient cohort. The effect of early removal of ureteral stents on UTI risk still has to be elucidated.
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