Guide to special requirements for formating manuscripts for Bladder

Bladder has manuscript formating requirments which may differ from many other journals and some special requirments are listed below. Please do read the complete Information for Authors before you submit your manuscript to Bladder.

Manuscript text 

  • Main mnuscript file must be a single MS Word file including main text, figures and their accompanying legends, tables, and references.
  • Figures should be embedded in MS Word file and their legends should appear immediately below their corresponding figures.
  • Only capitalize the first letter of article title and other headings.
  • Main text should be typed single spaced in 12 point font (Times or Times Roman).
  • Footnotes to the text are not allowed and such materials should be incorporated into the text.


  • Figures and supplementary figures should be presented in the order they are mentioned in the text. All figures should be cited in consecutive order in Arabic numerals in the text (such as Figure 1, Figure 2 and 3, Figure 3A and B, Figure 2A-C). When figures are cited in parenthesis, figures name should be shortened as Fig. (e.g., Fig. 1).
  • Apart from embedded in MS Word file, figures should also be submitted as separate TIFF files with a resolution of at least 300 dpi. 
  • Figure legends should start with a caption for each figure followed by a brief description of the methods for conducting the experiments and the data presented in the figure. When a figure contains multiple panels, each panel should be mentioned as A., B., and etc.
  • Detailed instructions on how to prepare figures can be found here.


  • The Vancouver system (also known as “author-number” system) of referencing should be used.
  • If EndNote program is used for formatting references, please use the PLoS-Public Library of Science Style (download it here).
  • Citations to references in main text should appear as unsuperscripted numbers contained in bracks, e.g., "It has been previously reported [2]."

Supplementary Information

  • Supplementary information should be combined into a single PDF file except for large Excel tables (see below) and video files. This PDF file should be labeled “Supplementary Information” and should start with a Table of Content that provides a clear and easy access to the sections of supplementary information, as cited in the main text.
  • All supplementary figures, tables and movies should be cited as “Figure S1”, “Figure S2”, “Table S1”, “Table S2”, Movie S1, etc.
  • Each figure legend should be typed beneath its figure.
  • Large supplementary tables (more than 50 rows) can be submitted as MS Excel spreadsheet documents (.xls or .xlsx).